by Benjamin Franklin V
When the firm of Houghton, Mifflin published Sarah Orne Jewett's e Country of the Pointed Firs in 1910, the year following the author's death, it added two chapters to the text that had first appeared in 1896. The publisher added another story to the 1919 edition. More than a century following the death of Herman Melville, Herschel Parker startled the literary world with his edition of Melville's Pierre (1995). In eliminating a substantial amount of material from the 1852 text, the only edition published during Melville's lifetime, Parker implied that he understood better than the author Melville's desires regarding the contents of this novel. Clearly, some editors create texts of which the authors themselves did not and possibly--probably?--would not approve. Editors have also rearranged the contents of texts by deceased authors. After adding chapters to The Country of the Pointed Firs, Houghton, Mifflin changed the sequence of some of Jewett's stories for the 1924 edition. The following year, Willa Cather rearranged them again. Samuel Clemens left specific instructions that his autobiography, when published, should follow the haphazard, nonchronological sequence in which he wrote about his life. Although Albert Bigelow Paine, the fist editor, more-or-less honored Clemens's request in 1924, Bernard DeVoto, the second editor (1940), and Charles Neider, the third (1959), did not (Kiskis xvi-xxiv). Unlike DeVoto and Neider, Malcolm Cowley had authorial "permission" for rearranging a text. When Tender Is the Night was published in 1934, its plot did not progress chronologically, although its author, F. Scott Fitzgerald, subsequently thought that it should. In 1951, Cowley published it in the manner the author ultimately desired. While Clemens and Fitzgerald attempted to influence how their works would be structured, Anais Nin, to the best of my knowledge, left no instructions for rearranging her stories in Under a Glass Bell, a collection that has recently been reorganized.
When Nin could not place her work with commercial publishers in the 1940s, she established the Gemor Press, which published four volumes of her fiction. Two of the titles, Winter of Artifice (1942) and House of Incest (1947), had been published in limited editions by small Paris presses in the 1930s.[sup1] Of the other two, which were previously unpublished, one, This Hunger (1945), includes a story and two novellas and has not been republished; the other, Under a Glass Bell (1944), collects eight tales Nin had written in the late 1930s and early 1940s and includes a foreword.[sup2] Over the years, the contents of Under a Glass Bell changed, first with the addition of two novellas, the prose poem The House of Incest, and a story to the 1947 edition, and then with the deletion of the foreword and The House of Incest but with the addition of four tales in 1948. With this edition, Nin arranged her 13 stories in a sequence that would remain uniform for almost 50 years. In 1957, she deleted the two novellas she had added to the 1948 edition. From 1957 until 1995, the only variation in the contents of this book was a Nin preface that appears in the 1968 and 1978 editions. In 1995, however, the Swallow Press/Ohio University Press published a new edition, with the stories rearranged by Gunther Stuhlmann, Nin's longtime agent, who, as editor of Anais: An International Journal and a number of Nin's books, including volumes of the Diary, has made valuable, lasting contributions to Nin's work.[sup3] His restructuring of Under a Glass Bell begs the questions of why Nin arranged the stories as she did and why Stuhlmann reorganized them in a sequence she did not approve.
I believe that she structured them according to compelling literary logic. He decided to reorder the tales on the basis of a vague and insupportable editorial rationale that he, himself, did not follow. Nin cared about the contents of her books. When they displeased her, she rewrote, added to, deleted from, or rearranged them until she was satisfied. Her treatment of the contents of The Winter of Artifice illustrates the point. When published in 1939, it included three novellas. With the 1942 edition, Nin removed one of them and rewrote the other two, offering one without a title; she also deleted the definite article from the title of the book. She finally became pleased with the contents in 1961, when she retained the two rewritten novellas, added a novella from another book, and titled the untitled story.[sup4] Nin also altered the contents of Ladders to Fire, her first novel. When published in 1946, it included a prologue and three "chapters." In 1963, Nin replaced the prologue with a prefatory statement and removed one of the chapters. With the 1966 edition, she deleted the prefatory statement.[sup5] Further, in 1961, she published the novel Seduction of the Minotaur, which is an expansion of an earlier novel, Solar Barque (1958).
Nin then replaced Solar Barque with Seduction of the Minotaur in Cities of the Interior (1974), a collection of her novels originally published in 1959. Nin had good reason for remaining content with the organization of the stories in Under a Glass Bell after 1948. They cohere as a unified whole. While I do not wish to argue that the collection should be read as a novel, as is Faulkner's Go Down, Moses, for example, I would like to suggest that because of its unity it might beneficially be read as a short-story cycle, or sequence, as defined by Forrest L. Ingram.[sup6] Although he draws on the work of such a scholar as Helen W. Mustard, Ingram was probably the first critic of the short story to write authoritatively about story cycles written in English. In a book published in 1971, he characterizes a short-story cycle as "a book of short stories so linked to each other by their author that the reader's successive experience on various levels of the pattern of the whole significantly modifies his experience of each of its component parts" (19). He defines three types of cycles: "composed" from the outset "as a unit" (18), "arranged" after each story was published in order for the stories "to illuminate or comment upon one another by juxtaposition or association" (18), and "completed" by an author after becoming "conscious of unifying strands which he may have, even subconsciously, woven into the action of the stories" (18). Ingram's study informs the work of Robert M. Luscher and Susan Garland Mann, whose analyses of short-story cycles, or sequences, were published in 1989. The writings of these three scholars helped establish a critical environment that led to the publication of Modern American Short Story Sequences (1995), a book of essays edited by J. Gerald Kennedy. This is not the place to discuss the nuances of short-story sequence theory; yet, statements by these critics bear on my concern, the arrangement of stories in Under a Glass Bell, a collection none of them mentions. For example, Mann observes that such authors as Sherwood Anderson (in Winesburg, Ohio) and Reynolds Price (in Permanent Errors) have effectively used the story sequence to convey a "sense of isolation or fragmentation or indeterminacy" (11).
So, too, has Nin. Mann notes that many story sequences by women, such as Simone de Beauvoir's The Woman Destroyed, "depict unsatisfactory love relationships and families" (11). Such is the case with stories in Under a Glass Bell. Kennedy finds that the organization of a story sequence "may range from obvious to subtle; connections between stories may be patent or covert" (ix). I think the organization of Nin's stories and the connections between them neither obvious nor subtle, neither patent nor covert, but rather in the broad middle range where a careful examination of the stories reveals the nature of their interrelatedness. Luscher avers that "the hand of the serious writer shapes the finished sequence according to his own aesthetic intentions" (159). Nin, a serious author, so shaped her stories. In fact, in her introductory comments to the first three editions of the collection she invites readers to look for connections among her tales: "Everything is related and inter-active but at times we fail to see how" (Under a Glass Bell  iv). In this essay, I demonstrate how Nin, in Ingram's term, "arranged" the stories in Under a Glass Bell so they would flow naturally, one from the other. In a 1978 study about the tales in Nin's collection, Keith Cushman states that "there is nothing haphazard or random about the shape ultimately achieved in Under a Glass Bell" (110), by which he means that Nin spent years deciding on its final contents. While finding numerous examples of imagery that connects them, he focuses on images that appear randomly throughout the stories, not on the images and other literary devices that might connect one tale to the next, from the first to the last. He believes that "the images link up with one another nonmechanically and nonrationally. They bind the stories together, but that binding seems to reside in imagination and feeling--in vision--rather than in external organization" (Cushman 114).[sup7] If he is correct--if the collection retains unity no matter how the tales are arranged--then Stuhlmann's reordering of the stories matters primarily because it violates structure for unconvincing reasons. But if Cushman is wrong--if Nin organized her collection so it would progress logically, most importantly through imagery, from the first story to the last--then Stuhlmann's restructuring matters significantly because it will have destroyed the pattern Nin established deliberately and chose several times to retain. And so it has.
When Nin gathered eight stories for publication in 1944, she had to please no one but herself because she controlled the publishing project at the Gemor Press. Had she desired, she could have made last-minute changes in her text, deleted or added stories and other fictions, or canceled the project. Once committed to the book, she was compelled to decide on the best sequence for the tales. She arranged them so satisfactorily that although she would subsequently add stories and novellas to Under a Glass Bell, and would later delete some of these new selections, only once did she modify the eight-story sequence she had established in 1944. In 1948, she inserted five tales between two of the original eight stories. Why did Nin choose "Houseboat," her longest story, to introduce the collection?[sup8] Cushman observes that "it establishes so many of the book's themes and images" (112), as it does. While this could be said of almost any other story Nin might have chosen to place first, Cushman identifies several important themes and images in "Houseboat": reality versus the dream, imprisonment, entrapment, drowning, suffocation, caves, tunnels, and spider webs. The first of these is the most significant, by far, because Nin uses it frequently in her fiction. In "Houseboat," she introduces this theme through land and water imagery, and aspects of this division resonate throughout the story: Such unpleasant realities as having to obey stop lights and stay within crosswalks therefore cause the narrator to seek solace in a dream-life aboard her houseboat on the Seine. The narrator of Nin's first published fiction, The House of Incest, has difficulty reconciling reality and dream. In both this prose poem and "Houseboat," the dream serves as a valuable, even necessary refuge from one's diurnal life; residing in it exclusively can be fatal, however, as the dancer and narrator of The House of Incest ultimately realize and as Nin implies in all her fictions dealing with this theme. As the initial story in the collection, "Houseboat" connects the entirety of Under a Glass Bell with a--the?--major theme of her earlier fiction and introduces themes and images to the collection. It also contains numerous realistic elements, such as the houseboat, tramps, city workers, and so forth. These details make it more accessible than a tale such as "The Labyrinth," for example, the short, abstract story that Stuhlmann selected to open the 1995 edition. "Houseboat" also has a plot with tension. What will happen to the narrator? Is her dream of escaping life ashore good or bad? Will her houseboat be towed away? If so, will the narrator be permitted to return it to its original location on the Seine? Among Nin's probable reasons for making "Houseboat" the first story in Under a Glass Bell, then, are the themes it introduces, its relatively easy-to-understand meaning, and its plot.
Nin alludes to a different but related reason for beginning the collection with this tale. In her curious introductory comments to the first three editions of Under a Glass Bell, she explains that her dreamlike, escapist stories represent a way of dealing with an unspecified "suffering of the world" and that she wrote them "under an evil social structure," which she also does not identify (Under a Glass Bell  iv). In this foreword, she also addresses "Houseboat," while referring to the narrator as herself: "I took a houseboat and it became the Noah's Ark of a dream voyage. I sought the river as a lulling drug" (iv), by which she means that she desired--and the narrator desires--the houseboat as a place of refuge from a harsh, prescriptive society. Therefore, Nin opens the collection with a story that illustrates why she wrote her stories as she did, as explained in the foreword.[sup9] Most if not all of the tales in Under a Glass Bell focus to one degree or another on the theme of reality versus dream, so Nin could have chosen practically any one of them to follow "Houseboat," had she wished for them to progress thematically. She selected "The Mouse" to come second, and for good reason: both it and "Houseboat" are set on a houseboat on the Seine. They possess other similarities. In each appears a man with a wooden leg (a beggar in the first story, a doctor in the second), a character who receives a letter (the narrator in "Houseboat," the titular character in "The Mouse"), pots and pans, a bed, tramps or hoboes on the quays, and insensitive authorities (city governmental officials in the first story, doctors and medical personnel in the second). Further, a death by drowning (a suicide) and a woman who nearly drowns in "Houseboat" prefigure the Mouse's almost falling from the houseboat into the Seine and possibly drowning because she holds a broom that is caught in the river's current. Nin rifled her collection perfectly: all her major characters seem to be surrounded by a glass bell that keeps them from functioning in what most people would consider normal life. Because the siblings Jeanne, Jean, and Paul are so confined in the third story, "Under a Glass Bell," they live in a world of images and strange relationships. This story shares numerous details with "The Mouse." The siblings' wealth and opulence contrast with the Mouse's poverty and austerity, as the whiteness of their surroundings contrasts with the Mouse's grayness. The serpentine Seine in the former story anticipates the curved chair legs in the latter. The silent, immobile figures on the siblings' mantelpiece reflect the condition of the Mouse, whose fear of life on the quays essentially paralyzes her. Their "secret silences [and] muted pains" (36) parallel the Mouse's inability to express her needs and reveal her pregnancy to the narrator. Jeanne and her brothers sit in "children's chairs" (36) and sleep in the beds of their childhood; the Mouse reads a "Child's Reader" (32). They want to die; the Mouse almost dies from her self-induced abortion. The siblings, who have no "human sympathy" (38), would not treat the Mouse kindly if they somehow interacted with her; the Mouse has not always been treated well by her employers. Their mother's drug use and search for passion deprived Jeanne, Jean, and Paul of a normal childhood; the mother of the Mouse disserves her by asking for money. Jeanne's skin is "an egg shell" (40); the Mouse responds negatively when the narrator asks her to buy eggs. Everything in the home of Jeanne and her brothers is fragile, as is the Mouse. Both Jean's wife and the Mouse are "small and human" (38). The siblings' mother speaks broken phrases; the Mouse sings fragments of songs. As the narrator of "Houseboat," the Mouse, and the siblings confront reality only with difficulty, so does the main character in "The Mohican." Because he cannot distinguish reality from dream, he lives exclusively in the latter, in the past. For him, "all life was a minor crystal phenomenon on the surface of a planet" (43), thus connecting him with the siblings' "conspiracy of tranquillity to preserve this flowerlike fragility in crystal . . ." (36) in "Under a Glass Bell." Like Jeanne and her brothers, he is dead to ordinary human existence because he breaks "all the laws of human life which demand collisions and intermarriages" among opposites (45). While having apparently "normal" spouses, the siblings most of all love each other, to a degree that suggests incest.
The Mohican also loves someone similar to himself, or at least might have sex with such a person, in this case an Algerian boy. The whiteness established in "Under a Glass Bell" continues in the shirt of the Mohican, in his skin made pale from his extensive work in the Bibliotheque Nationale, in his blotter, and in the Sacre Coeur church. The "perfume of rich lives" (35) that permeates the siblings' house anticipates the Mohican's elegance, his aristocratic bearing. Pathetic though the Mohican is in his inability to function in the present and to love a person unlike himself, Pierre is equally pitiful as he lives apart from the world of reality in "Je suis le plus malade des surrealistes." As the Mohican sees the world's madness, Pierre's derangement causes his confinement, finally, in a mental hospital. The hardness of these characters causes them to become calcined. The image of crystal begun in "Under a Glass Bell" and continued in "The Mohican" also occurs in the story of Pierre when his dream places the narrator in a "crystal cell" (49). The Mohican desires "ultimate revelations" (46) while Pierre wants something similar in his Theater of Cruelty. Both characters frequent Paris cultural institutions: the Mohican, the Bibliotheque Nationale; Pierre, the Louvre Museum. The Mohican thinks himself clairvoyant; Pierre is occasionally intuitive. Both of them have experienced failure, and they see people as phosphorescent. At the conclusion of the stories, they have no control over themselves: the Nazis have arrested the Mohican; Pierre wears a straitjacket. The main characters in Nin's tales through "Je suis le plus malade des surrealistes" are fragmented because they live apart from life. "Ragtime," therefore, could fit logically anyplace among them because it deals with the broken, with waste, with detritus, with the nonviable. Its image of discarded wine corks recalls the corks surrounding the houseboat in the first story; a one-stringed mandolin is similar to the violin that produces no sound in "Houseboat" and the guitar with snapped string that symbolizes the unhappy fate of the siblings at the conclusion of "Under a Glass Bell." Yet, despite images not unlike those in earlier stories, for the first time in Under a Glass Bell the imagery of one tale ("Je suis le plus malade des surrealistes") does not continue in the next ("Ragtime"). This happens because with the exception of the first story, "Houseboat," the first-person narrator of all the stories until "Ragtime" tells not about herself but about the lives of other characters; although the narrator is important in these tales, she is not the main character in any of them, as she is in "Ragtime" and in the two succeeding stories, "The Labyrinth" and "Birth." A change in imagery attends a shift in narrative focus. Which of the final three tales should Nin place after "Ragtime"?
She selected "The Labyrinth." Both "Ragtime" and "The Labyrinth" treat the narrator's dreams. Images common to these stories include a clock, darkness/nighttime, shadows, clouds, boxes, fountains, paths, holes, trees, knives, fragments, flowers, leather, silk, ribbons, windows, rust, paper, and armlessness. Additionally, while the narrator of the first of these two tales is lost in a ragpicker's bag, the narrator of the second is lost in the labyrinth of her diary. "Ragtime" has a clock without hands; "The Labyrinth," pages without numbers. As the city in the first story turns from its right side to its left, the narrator of the second does not know if she turned right or left in her diary. "Ragtime" includes fleas and a foot; "The Labyrinth," insects and feet. Both narrators reflect on themselves as young women or girls, as a 17-year-old in the first story and as an 11-year-old in the second. Of the eight stories collected in the 1944 Under a Glass Bell, "Birth" has the fewest similarities to the others. It shares knife imagery with "Ragtime" and "The Labyrinth." Both "Ragtime" and "Birth" have fragments, bags, and pregnancies; "The Labyrinth" and "Birth," something stillborn (desire in the former story, the fetus in the latter). "Birth" is vividly realistic. Because it is, it pairs with "Houseboat," another tale with a substantial number of realistic elements, to frame the entire collection. "Birth" is also the most moving and memorable of Nin's short fictions. How could one not sympathize with a woman spending hours attempting to give birth to a fetus she knows is dead, all the while suffering indignities--impatience, insensitivity, cruelty--from the medical personnel attending her? "Birth" is, also, the only one of Nin's collected stories to have no geographical setting. One could argue--as I would--that like Nin's other stories, this tale concerns the dream, in this case the narrator's, which, for the only time in the collection, is wholly positive. In ridding herself of death (the fetus), the narrator gains life, as the title suggests. Nin therefore wisely placed last this masterful story in order to conclude the collection positively. It serves as an appropriate climax to a series of tales inhabited by generally pathetic, unsympathetic characters who struggle with reality, almost always unsuccessfully.[sup10] To summarize: in 1944, Nin structured eight stories in Under a Glass Bell according to patterns of imagery, shared plot elements, and narrative focus. She opened the collection with "Houseboat," a story that introduces one of her major themes and has the narrator as the main character. The four tales dealing primarily with characters other than the narrator follow "Houseboat" in a sequence governed by imagery. The last three stories focus on the narrator. New imagery begins with "Ragtime" and continues in "The Labyrinth." Although some imagery in "Birth" and these two stories is similar, "Birth" is the tale least connected by imagery to another story. This most powerful of Nin's short fictions concludes the collection graphically, emotionally, and affirmatively. While Nin was publishing her books with the Gemor Press, she hoped that a commercial publisher would become interested in her work. Her wish was granted. In 1946, Dutton published the novel Ladders to Fire. The next year, Editions Poetry London published an edition of Under a Glass Bell. Because the eight stories of the 1944 edition would have required only approximately 65 printed pages, Nin needed to enlarge the text, as she did. The contents of the 1947 edition include all the stories in and the foreword (now called a prologue) to the 1944 editions, two novellas from The Winter of Artifice ("Winter of Artifice" and "The Voice"), the prose poem The House of Incest, and a story ("The All-Seeing").
Nin arranged the contents as follows: the two novellas, the prologue, the eight stories from the 1944 editions of Under a Glass Bell in their original sequence, the prose poem, and the new story. For the purposes of this essay, I merely note that although the 1947 edition presented Nin with another chance (the second 1944 edition was the first) to rethink the arrangement of the stories that she adopted in the first edition, she did not modify their order. Because she did not, she reaffirmed her structuring of them. In the following year, 1948, Nin again would have been able to rearrange the contents, if she wished. What did she do? For the Dutton edition of Under a Glass Bell, she deleted from the 1947 text the prologue and prose poem, but added four stories: "Through the Streets of My Own Labyrinth," "The Eye's Journey," "The Child Born out of the Fog," and "Hejda." She placed the novellas last (with "Winter of Artifice" now rifled "Djuna"), but included "The All-Seeing" with the four new stories and placed them in the collection as a group. Internal evidence suggests that Nin thought carefully before determining where best to insert and how most effectively to arrange these five stories. That is, she desired to structure them logically, so the 13-tale collection would cohere as what is now called a story sequence. Because she had decided, for compelling reasons, to begin Under a Glass Bell with "Houseboat" and conclude it with "Birth," Nin would not have been wise to place any of the five new stories before the first tale or after the last.[sup11] No one of them approaches the artistry of either earlier story or the emotional power of "Birth." She did what logic dictated. She identified two tales placed consecutively in the eight-tale sequence that have literary elements in common with a different new tale. Then, she placed first among the new stories a tale that connects with the first of the two stories she had identified in the eight-story sequence, and placed fifth a tale with similarities to the second of the two stories. She arranged the other three new tales according to patterns of imagery. As a result, she inserted the five-story group following the seventh tale, "The Labyrinth," and before the eighth and last one, "Birth." The existence of "Through the Streets of My Own Labyrinth" simplified Nin's task because it pairs naturally with "The Labyrinth," after which she positioned it. In these stories, the labyrinth is the narrator's diary. They share imagery: trees, streets, silences, and veiled faces. In both, the narrator looks back on herself at age 11 in Spain and elsewhere.
Further, because "Through the Streets of My Own Labyrinth" is the only one of the five new stories in which the narrator is the major character, having it appear first among them parallels Nin's 1944 decision to begin the entire collection with a tale focusing on the narrator and follow it with a series of stories about characters other than the narrator. So how should Nin arrange the other four tales? To follow "Through the Streets of My Own Labyrinth," she chose "The All-Seeing." Told in the first person, it focuses not on the narrator but on Jean, who cannot perceive reality accurately. It and "Through the Streets of My Own Labyrinth" include silences, eyes, rugs, and dreams. The first of these stories refers to Arabs' madness; in the second, isolation and an inability to live outside his dream cause Jean's emotional state to approach insanity. As there is continuity from "Through the Streets of My Own Labyrinth" to "The All-Seeing," so is there between "The All-Seeing" and "The Eye's Journey." Hans, residing in an asylum, is mad at the conclusion of "The Eye's Journey," which is told in the third person. The main characters in it and "The All-Seeing" are artists: Jean, a frustrated violinist; Hans, a painter. Both are concerned with vision but can see clearly neither themselves nor other people. Eyes, mirages, the sea, escapes, and windows that do not offer light (vision, insight) also connect these stories. Although "The Child Born out of the Fog" is similar to both "The All-Seeing" and "The Eye's Journey," it has more plot elements and imagery in common with the latter, which it follows, than the former. As Hans moves "shiftily and insecurely" (79) in "The Eye's Journey," Pony (the daughter of Sarah and Don) enters a room "sideways" (83) in "The Child Born out of the Fog." Hans travels to the "other side of the world" (78), by which the narrator means the dream, while Sarah takes a "long voyage" (83) from a white to a black lover. As Hans is lost in his dream, Sarah and Don are lost in a fog. Hans and Don face serious difficulties (Hans possibly dies at the end of his story); both are artists: the former, a painter; the latter, a guitarist. Both stories contain images of fire, eyes, windows, and the colors green and brown. Eyes, windows, and strangers appear in the last two of the five new stories, "The Child Born out of the Fog" and "Hejda." These tales are similar in several respects. Both are told in the third person. Girls--Pony and the young Hejda--appear in both, as do artists: the guitarist Don in one story, and painters Hejda and Molnar in the other. Don is a black man; the young Hejda has a dark-skinned friend. Sarah's parents disapprove of her relationship with a black man; Hejda wants to make her friend white. Sarah and Don attempt to keep their relationship secret, and Hejda has a "feeling of secrecy" (87). Both couples--Sarah and Don, Hejda and Molnar--are isolated from normal life. The first couple make love in a fog, while the second do so in the dark. The life of Hejda and Molnar is "stilted, window-less, facing inward" (92), as is the life of Sarah and Don. Society rejects the miscegenetic relationship of Sarah and Don; Molnar renounces Hejda. Only with difficulty does Hejda begin to discover her true identity, as does the narrator of the last tale in the eight-story sequence, "Birth." "Hejda" and "Birth" possess other similarities, including imagery of eyes and veils/curtains. Hejda protects Molnar; the narrator, her fetus. Both women swell, Hejda after becoming liberated from Molnar, and the narrator as a result of her pregnancy. More significantly, as Molnar controls Hejda's basic nature, so does the doctor attempt to govern the narrator's. Both women hide their real selves.
The young Hejda conceals herself beneath Oriental clothing and later in marriage to Molnar, while the narrator of "Birth" refuses to tell her doctor why she cannot expel her fetus. Both women finally free themselves, Hejda from societal restraints and the narrator from her unfortunate pregnancy. Through imagery, plot elements, and narrative focus, the new stories form a logically organized unit. The first of them follows naturally from "The Labyrinth"; the last leads directly to "Birth." As a result, the entire 13-story collection evolves from "Houseboat" to "Birth," creating an organic whole. Although no document of which I am aware indicates why Nin chose to structure the stories as she did, I have offered a rationale for her ordering of them. Evidence indicates that Nin used compelling literary reasoning in organizing the collection into an arranged sequence, as defined by Forrest L. Ingram. Once Nin established the 13-story sequence of Under a Glass Bell in 1948, she never changed it, despite opportunities for restructuring. When she published the collection with the Anais Nin Press in 1957, she reproduced the stories from the Dutton edition in facsimile, and therefore retained the structure of the earlier version. This text remained available through the Anais Nin Press (New York), Alan Swallow (Denver), the Swallow Press (Chicago), and the Swallow Press/Ohio University Press (Athens) until 1995. Nin had her last chance to alter the contents in 1968, when Peter Owen published the second English edition (following the Editions Poetry edition of 1947) of this collection.[sup12] She modified the contents only by adding a preface. In reorganizing the stories in 1995, then, Gunther Stuhlmann disregarded the author's well-founded belief, held for 30 years, that Nin had structured Under a Glass Bell in the most desirable manner.[sup13] (He placed only two of the tales in the position she had given them: "The Child Born out of the Fog," the eleventh story, and "Hejda," the twelfth.) In the fore-word to his edition of the tales, he explains his reasons for changing their sequence: The present edition of Under a Glass Bell contains all fifteen stories included in the enlarged Dutton edition of 1948. They have been rearranged to reflect, to some extent, the sequence of events and persons recorded in the diary which served as their inspiration rather than the uncertain chronological order in which they were written or published. (xvi)
In his edition, Stuhlmann includes 13 stories, not the 15 of the 1948 text. Absent are "Djuna" and "The Voice," novellas that never were a part of the eight- or 13-story sequence of tales here under discussion. He does not correct this misstatement in the second, most recent printing of his edition (1997). More significantly, he believes that fiction ought to adhere as closely as possible to some underlying reality, in this case the chronology of Nin's experiences as depicted in her Diary. Why is chronological arrangement desirable in a collection of stories? It is not. Ingram finds that authors of short-story cycles, or sequences, are "more interested in the rhythmic pattern of the telling than in the chronological consistency of the events themselves" (23). Susan Garland Mann agrees, stating "that there is considerably less emphasis in unified short story collections on plot chronology" (xii) than in other forms of fiction, such as the novel. In other words, in structuring Under a Glass Bell with a general disregard for chronological development but with a concern about the stories' interconnections, Nin joined the mainstream of authors who have compiled such sequences, such as James Joyce (Dubliners). Stuhlmann justifies his rearrangement of Nin's tales into a "to some extent" chronological sequence by stating that "there are subtle changes in style, in the deployment of the 'raw' material underlying each story, which may allow us to chart and date Anais Nin's progress as a writer during the decade in which these stories took shape" (xvi). He does not identify, these stylistic changes, which are so subtle that I do not see them. Understanding the development of an author's style can be valuable, everyone would agree; however, Stuhlmann offers no hint about the nature of Nin's development. Believing as he does is one thing, but rearranging the contents of Under a Glass Bell on the basis of such a belief is another. Granted, if stories published in various places or left unpublished in manuscript depict the evolution of a character, then one could at least argue for structuring a collection of such stories according to that character's chronological development, despite the author's proven desire not to do so. This was precisely the logic of Philip Young when collecting and arranging all of Ernest Hemingway's Nick Adams stories, for example.[sup14]
Robert M. Luscher criticizes Young in terms that could as easily apply to Stuhlmann's treatment of Nin's tales. Luscher states: "There are two problems with Young's sequence: first, the plan for the fictionalized 'autobiography' [of Nick Adams] is Young's, not Hemingway's; and second, Hemingway created his own short story sequence using a number of Nick Adams stories--In Our Time" (160). The decision to rearrange the stories in Under a Glass Bell was Stuhlmann's, not Nin's; Nin created her own short-story sequence, with which she was demonstrably satisfied. I cannot determine why Stuhlmann felt compelled to restructure these tales. Yes, Nin based them on events recorded in her Diary; but no, this fact does not justify disregarding her wishes about their organization. If Nin's narrator--does one narrator tell all the stories?--develops from "The Labyrinth," the first story in the 1995 edition, to "Ragtime," the last, Stuhlmann does not say; nor does he express interest in the structural ramifications of such a possibility. He is concerned with chronology, not character development. More importantly, what exactly does he mean by saying that the stories "have been rearranged to reflect, to some extent, the sequence of events . . ."? Did he arrange the stories chronologically, according to events in the Diary? He did not. On what basis did he decide to place some tales but not others in chronological sequence? He does not say. Could he not determine, from the Diary, the correct chronological ordering of the episodes on which Nin based her stories? Apparently not. But I can so order them, as could anyone equipped with a copy of Under a Glass Bell and volumes of Nin's Diary. Here, I list the 13 stories according to their sequence in the 1948 edition and provide the Diary sources for them:
[sup15] --"Houseboat": II, 119 (September 1936), 126 (September 1936), 127 (September 1936), 129 (October 1936), 168 (February 1937), 176 (February 1937), 303 (Summer 1938), 318 (January 1939). --"The Mouse": II, 179 (March 1937), 186 (March 1937), 206-08 (Summer 1937), 316 (January 1939). --"Under a Glass Bell": I, 167-70 (January 1933), 171-73 (January 1933); II, 61 (October 1935). --"The Mohican": II, 85 (June 1936), 99-101 (August 1936), 134 (October 1936), 165 (February 1937), 257-58 (October 1937), 311 (October 1938). --"Je suis le plus malade des surrealistes": I, 187 (March 1933), 229 (June 1933), 230-34 (June 1933), 245-46 (August 1933); II, 188-91 (March 1937). --"Ragtime": II, 104-06 (August 1936). --"The Labyrinth": L, 3-14 (25 July-12 August 1914). --"Through the Streets of My Own Labyrinth": II, 71-81 (April 1936), 184 (March 1937). --"The All-Seeing": II, 192 (March 1937), 275-77 (November 1937), 288-89 (January 1938), 295 (March 1938), 315 (October 1938). --"The Eye's Journey": II, 162-63 (January 1937). --"The Child Born out of the Fog": IV, 141 (April 1946). --"Hejda": III, 225-28 (Winter 1942), 233-35 (Winter 1942), 303-04 (January 1944); IV, 33 (December 1944). --"Birth": I, 337-49 (June and August 1934).
A comparison of Stuhlmann's arrangement of the stories and the chronological sequence of the Diary events on which the stories are based reveals the following:[sup16] Stuhlmann placed four of the 13 stories in proper chronological order, according to the sequence of events in the Diary: "The Labyrinth," "Under a Glass Bell," "Je suis le plus malade des surrealistes," and "Hejda." He came close with "The Mohican" and "The All-Seeing," but not quite so close with "Houseboat" and "The Child Born out of the Fog"--or with "The Mouse." He did not come at all close to placing four of the stories where they belong: "The Eye's Journey," "Birth," "Through the Streets of My Own Labyrinth," and "Ragtime."
Although the lists speak for themselves, Stuhlmann's positioning of two of the tales illustrates how extremely Stuhlmann failed to follow his own principles of placement, such as they are. In the first volume of the Diary, a two-sentence paragraph, dated June 1934, introduces Nin's lengthy treatment of the delivery of her stillborn fetus, dated August 1934 (337, 338-49). Not one of the stories following "Birth" in the chronological sequence list is based on an episode in the first Diary; every one originates in a later volume. In placing "The Eye's Journey," "The Mohican," "Houseboat," and "The Mouse"--all inspired by events depicted in the second volume of the Diary--before "Birth," Stuhlmann violated chronological development. Similarly, an episode dated August 1936 in the second Diary (104-06) motivated Nin to write "Ragtime." Stuhlmann positioned it last in his edition. The Diary entries on which Nin based the two stories that appear immediately before "Ragtime" in the 1995 edition are dated April 1946 ("The Child Born out of the Fog") and Winter 1942 ("Hejda"), or ten and six years, respectively, after the date of the Diary entry that served as the basis for "Ragtime." I cannot explain why Stuhlmann placed these and most of the other stories in the positions he did in his edition of Under a Glass Bell. An editor should have compelling reasons for changing the structure of a text. Houghton, Mifflin added stories to Sarah Orne Jewett's The Country of the Pointed Firs because they are set in the same location, Dunnet Landing, as the tales Jewett included in her book, which is now often considered a novel. Herschel Parker twice edited Melville's Pierre, the second time deleting a substantial number of pages he (and Melville) had earlier included because Parker came to believe that Melville wrote this material in a fit of pique and inserted it in the already completed manuscript before it went to press. Editors at Houghton, Mifflin rearranged some of Jewett's stories, without explanation, and then Willa Cather changed their sequence, also without comment. Bernard DeVoto and Charles Neider rearranged the contents of Clemens's autobiography--the former, thematically; the latter, chronologically--despite the author's expressed desire that an editor not do so. Malcolm Cowley restructured Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night chronologically, in accordance with the author's wishes.
Whether these editors' reasons for altering texts are convincing I leave for others to determine. But what to make of Gunther Stuhlmann's restructuring of Under a Glass Bell, especially since its author, Anais Nin, had more than once demon-strated her satisfaction with the arrangement of its stories, since her structuring of them is logical and artful, and since they develop in a manner similar to story sequences by other twentieth-century authors? That is, "the hand of [a] serious writer shape[d] the finished sequence according to [her] own aesthetic intentions" (Luscher 159). Again I repeat Stuhlmann's justification for changing the sequence of stories Nin established in 1948: they "have been rearranged to reflect, to some extent, the sequence of events and persons recorded in the diary which served as their inspiration rather than the uncertain chronological order in which they were written or published" (xvi). Stuhlmann never explains what he means by "to some extent." Not only does he err in presuming to know how best to structure Nin's collection, but his rationale is ultimately no rationale at all. It is indefensible because it means nothing. Or if it means something, such as that his organization of the stories is chronological according to events in the Diary, then his arrangement violates this rationale in most instances. Stuhlmann acknowledges, though, that in the 1940s, "even without the key of the diary, it seems, readers were able to respond to Anais Nin's poetic distillations" (xviii), by which he means her tales. If readers then could understand them without knowing the Diary episodes on which they are based, why do readers now need such information? He does not say. The Swallow Press/Ohio University Press should let Stuhlmann's edition go out of print and republish Under a Glass Bell with the stories arranged according to Nin's wishes. [sup1] The Winter of Artifice (1939) includes the novellas "Djuna," "Lilith," and "The Voice." Two novellas appear in Winter of Artifice (1942). One of them is untitled, but had been titled "Lilith" in the 1939 edition; the other is "The Voice." The Gemor Press also published Nin's A Child Born out of the Fog (1947) and Preface to Henry Miller's "Tropic of Cancer" (1947), in addition to works by other authors. For a detailed discussion of this press, see Jason. [sup2] This Hunger includes a prologue, the story "Hejda," and the novellas "Stella" and "Lillian and Djuna." The eight stories in the Gemor Press editions of Under a Glass Bell first appeared in the following places: "Houseboat" (as "Life on the Seine"), Matrix 3.2 (1941), 12-16, and (as "I Shall Never Forgive the King of England") Matrix 3.3 (1941): 28-33; "Under a Glass Bell," Diogenes 1.3 (Autumn 1941): 101-07; "Je suis le plus malade des surrealistes" (as "Le Merle Blanc," written in French), The Booster 2.7 (September 1937): 17-18, and (as "The Story of Pierre") Experimental Review 3 (September 1941): 46-55; "Rag-Time," Seven 2 (Autumn 1938): 2-4; "The Labyrinth" (as "The Paper Womb"), The Booster 4.10-11 (December 1937-January 1938): 3-5; "Birth," Twice a Year 1 (Fall-Winter. 1938): 132-37. "The Mouse" and "The Mohican" were apparently first published in Under a Glass Bell. [sup3] The English-language editions of Under a Glass Bell are as follows: Under a Glass Bell (New York: Gemor Press, 1944). 300 copies. Under a Glass Bell (New York: Gemor Press, 1944). 800 copies. Under a Glass Bell (London: Editions Poetry London, 1947). Under a Glass Bell and Other Stories (New York: Dutton, 1948).
All subsequent American printings of this title until 1995 reproduce this text (exclusive of the novellas "Djuna" and "The Voice") and retain its arrangement of stories. My references to Under a Glass Bell, as arranged by Nin, are to this 1948 edition, unless noted otherwise. The five stories new to this edition were first published elsewhere: "Through the Streets of My Own Labyrinth," Dyn 3 (Fall 1942): 40; "The All-Seeing," Circle 1.4 (1944): 4-9; "The Eye's Journey," Dyn 6 (November 1944): 34-36; A Child Born out of the Fog (New York: Gemor Press, 1947); "Hejda," This Hunger (1945). Under a Glass Bell and Other Stories (London: Peter Owen, 1968). Under a Glass Bell (London: Penguin, 1978). Reprinted, with a different cover, in the King Penguin series (1982) and as a Penguin Twentieth-Century Classic (1990). Under a Glass Bell and Other Stories, ed. Gunther Stuhlmann (Athens: Swallow Press/Ohio University Press, 1995). Subsequent references to this edition are noted in the text. The title of this collection of stories is inconsistent. Nin used the same tide with the first three editions, despite the inclusion in the third edition of several selections not in the first two editions. In 1948, she expanded the number of stories in Under a Glass Bell from eight to 13 and included the novellas "Djuna" and "The Voice"; someone--Nin? an editor?--added and Other Stories to the rifle. All later American printings of this edition retain this tide. The longer tide also appears in the second English edition (1968). Nin, who died in 1977, possibly did not live to consult with Penguin about the 1978 edition (see note 12), which has the same contents as the Owen edition but which uses the shorter title. The title of this collection assumes importance in the context of short-story sequence theory and practice. Susan Garland Mann observes that "collections that are not cycles have traditionally been named after a single story to which the phrase 'and other stories' is appended" (14). While Nin's collection is named after a story and in some editions includes the phrase and Other Stories in the title, it is without question a short-story cycle, or sequence, as, within the context of Mann's observation, the title of the first three editions and the 1978 edition indicates. I doubt that Nin thought about the ramifications of and Other Stories. When this phrase first appeared in the tide of Under a Glass Bell, it was accurate: the 1948 edition includes stories (or novellas) that had not been and would never be a part of the story sequence known as Under a Glass Bell. Because Nin had the 1948 text--including the tide--reproduced in facsimile for publication through the Anais Nin Press in 1957, and because all subsequent American printings until 1995 use this same text, these printings include in the tide the phrase and Other Stores. Nin could have deleted it from the tide of the 1968 edition, but did not. I cannot determine who decided to omit it from the 1978 edition. Stuhlmann uses it in his edition of 1995. [sup4]
Winter of Artifice (1961). This book includes the novellas "Stella," "Winter of Artifice," and "The Voice." "Stella" first appeared in This Hunger (1945). "Winter of Artifice" was published originally as "Lilith" in The Winter of Artifice (1939). Untitled in the 1942 edition of Winter of Artifice, it appears as "Winter of Artifice" in the 1947 edition of Under a Glass Bell and as "Djuna" in the Dutton edition (1948). This "Djuna" is different from the novella of the same title in The Winter of Artifice (1939). "Djuna" has not been republished, although Gunther Stuhlmann published excerpts from it--titled "Hans and Johanna"--in 1989. "The Voice" was published initially in The Winter of Artifice (1939). [sup5] The three chapters in the 1946 edition of Ladders to Fire are "Stella," "Lillian and Djuna," and "Bread and the Wafer." "Stella" and "Lillian and Djuna" originally appeared as novellas in This Hunger (1945); "Bread and the Wafer" was not previously published. [sup6] Kent Ekberg thinks Under a Glass Bell should be read as a novel (6-7). [sup7] Almost as an afterthought near the conclusion of his essay, Cushman proposes that Nin structured her stories "on a series of pairings" (117). For example, "The Child Born out of the Fog" and "Hejda" concern married couples and include social criticism. Kent Ekberg also writes about unifying elements in Under a Glass Bell but addresses Nin's organization of the stories only in passing. He states that the first and last stories constitute a "fluid frame" for the collection because "they are the stories . . . that lead the reader into and out of the closed world of art under glass" (16). [sup8] In the first three editions of Under a Glass Bell, Nin rifled one story "House Boat," another "Rag Time," and another "JE SUIS LE PLUS MALADE DES SURREALISTES ANTONIN ARTAUD."
With one exception, throughout this essay I use her final rendering of these rifles: "Houseboat," "Ragtime" (both first used in the 1948 edition), and Je suis le plus malade des surrealistes" (first used in the 1968 edition). In the 1948 edition, she adopted the title "JE SUIS LE PLUS MALADE DES SURREALISTES." In 1995, Stuhlmann styled it "Je suis le plus malade des Surrealistes." The exception is my use of "Rag-Time" in note 2, where the title is that of the first periodical publication of the tale in Seven (1938). [sup9] In refusing to publish the foreword in any edition of Under a Glass Bell after 1947, Nin apparently repudiated the ideas she expresses in it. [sup10] Whether by design or accident, the event on which Nin based this story appears near the conclusion of the first volume of her Diary, with powerful effect. See The Diary of Anais Nin, 1931-1934, 337-49. In this text, Nin does not know the fetus is dead until its delivery. [sup11] In the 1947 edition, Nin placed both her prose poem and "The All-Seeing" after "Birth." In listing four divisions in this volume--"Winter of Artifice" (which includes "Winter of Artifice" and "The Voice"), "Under a Glass Bell," "The House of Incest," and "The All-Seeing"--the table of contents clearly indicates that the fictions Nin positioned after "Birth" are not part of the story sequence entitled Under a Glass Bell. In this edition Nin thus retained the arrangement of stories she established in 1944. I cannot explain why Nin (or someone at Dutton) placed last in the 1948 volume--following "Birth"--the two parts of "Winter of Artifice." Such a placement seems inappropriate, especially since these same two novellas appear before the eight stories in the 1947 edition. The title of this 1948 collection, Under a Glass Bell and Other Stories, indicates, though, that these novellas are not part of the story sequence known as Under a Glass Bell. The front dust jacket reads: "a collection of all the short stories anais nin has written, and 'winter of artifice', a novelette." The rear dust jacket repeats this statement, with some letters capitalized and the title of the novelette italicized. (The 1948 novelette contains two parts: "Winter of Artifice Part I: Djuna" and "Winter of Artifice Part II: The Voice." The contents of Winter of Artifice are usually considered novellas, or novelettes.) So, even though material follows "Birth" in the 1947 and 1948 editions, in both cases it is presented independent of the story sequence known as Under a Glass Bell. The integrity of the collection holds in these two instances. [sup12] Penguin published the next English edition of Under a Glass Bell in 1978, the year following Nin's death. Because Nin died early in 1977, she probably did not consult with Penguin about the contents that, nevertheless, are those of the 13-story American collection, and in the same sequence. As of this writing, the Penguin edition remains in print. [sup13] When the Swallow Press/Ohio University Press added a Stuhlmann foreword to its sixth printing of House of Incest in 1995, the publisher placed it after the beginning of Nin's text. It remains there in the seventh, most recent printing (1998). I cannot determine if Stuhlmann recommended this odd positioning of his foreword. [sup14] Although Hemingway published Nick Adams tales in several story collections, he chose not to publish a substantial number of them. [sup15] I use the following abbreviations: L = Linotte I = The Diary of Anais Nin, 1931-1934 II = The Diary of Anais Nin, 1934-1939 III= The Diary of Anais Nin, 1939-1944 IV = The Diary of Anais Nin, 1944-1947 [sup16] Unfortunately, the Diary is not a reliable source for dating events in Nin's life.
Stuhlmann says the following about dates he has provided in it: "The dates in brackets, given by the editor, also are merely intended to indicate the flow of time (or date a specific event), and do not always correspond to the numerous dates in the original manuscripts, where retrospective entries sometimes confuse the actual chronology" (I: xi). Some of the dates I use from the Diary are confirmed in Incest and Fire. Although some dates in Nearer the Moon correspond to those in the Diary, others do not. For example, Nin's account of Fez ("Through the Streets of My Own Labyrinth") dated March 1937 (II: 184) appears in the entry for 14 April 1937 in Nearer the Moon (22-23). More seriously, Nin's description of Jean Carteret ("The All-Seeing") dated March 1937 (II: 192) is recorded in the entry for 15 February 1938 in Nearer the Moon (214-15). These alternative dates in Nearer the Moon do not affect the position of any story in my chronological sequence of Nin's tales. With stories based on more than one Diary episode, I use the date of the earliest entry for placing a story chronologically. Unpleasant: Pleasant: land water reality dream present past noise silence regimentation freedom discontinuity continuity harshness soothingness dissonance consonance violence docility anger tranquility war peace finite infinite
Legend for chart: A1="Je suis le plus malade des surrealistes" A2="Je suis le plus malade des surrealistes" A3="The Child Born out of the Fog" Stuhlmann sequence (1995) Chronological sequence in The Diary "The Labyrinth " "The Labyrinth" "Under a Glass Bell" " "Under a Glass Bell" A1 A2 "The Eye's Journey " "Birth" "The Mohican " "Through the Streets of My Own Labyrinth" "Houseboat " "The Mohican" "The Mouse " "Ragtime" "Birth " "Houseboat" "Through the Streets of my "The Eye's Journey" Own Labyrinth" "The All-Seeing " "The Mouse" A3 "The All-Seeing" "Hejda" "Hejda" "Ragtime" " "The Child Born out of the Fog" Legend for chart: A1=sectionF sectionF sectionF sectionF sectionF A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 Works Cited Clemens, Samuel L. The Autobiography of Mark Twain. Ed. Charles Neider. New York: Harper, 1959. ____. Mark Twain in Eruption Ed. Bernard DeVoto. New York: Harper, 1940. ____. Mark Twain's Autobiography. Ed. Albert Bigelow Paine. New York: Harper, 1924. Cushman, Keith. "The View from Under a Glass Bell." Mosaic 11.2 (1978): 109-19. Ekberg, Kent. "The Importance of Under a Glass Bell." Under the Sign of Pisces: Anais Nin and Her Circle 8.2 (1977): 4-18. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Tender Is the Night: A Romance. New York: Scribner's, 1934. ____. Tender Is the Night: A Romance. Ed. Malcolm Cowley. New York: Scribner's, 1951. Hemingway, Ernest. The Nick Adams Stories. Ed. Philip Young. New York: Scribner's, 1972. Ingram, Forrest L. Representative Short Story Cycles of the Twentieth Century: Studies in a Literary Genre. The Hague: Mouton, 1971. Jason, Philip K. "The Gemor Press." Anais: An International Journal 2 (1984): 24-39. Jewett, Sarah Orne. The Best Short Stories of Sarah Orne Jewett. Selected and arranged by Willa Cather. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton, 1925. ____. The Country of the Pointed Firs. Boston: Houghton, 1896. ____. The Country of the Pointed Firs. Boston: Houghton, 1910. ____. The Country of the Pointed Firs. Boston: Houghton, 1919. ____. The Country of the Pointed Firs. Boston: Houghton, 1924. Kennedy, J. Gerald, ed. Modern American Short Story Sequences: Composite Fictions and Fictive Communities. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995. Kiskis, Michael J., ed. Mark Twain's Own Autobiography: The Chapters from the "North American Review." Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1990. Luscher, Robert M. "The Short Story Sequence: An Open Book." Short Story Theory at a Crossroads. Ed. Susan Lohafer and Jo Ellyn Clarey. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1989. 148-67. Mann, Susan Garland. The Short Story Cycle: A Genre Companion and Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood, 1989. Melville, Herman. Pierre; or, The Ambiguities. New York: Harper, 1852. ____. Pierre; or, The Ambiguities. Ed. Herschel Parker, Harrison Hayford, and G. Thomas Tanselle. Evanston: Northwestern UP/Newberry Library, 1971. ____. Pierre; or, The Ambiguities. Ed. Herschel Parker. New York: HarperCollins, 1995. Mustard, Helen M. The Lyric Cycle in German Literature. Morningside Heights, NY: King's Crown, 1946. Nin, Anais. Cities of the Interior. New York: Anais Nin Press, 1959. ____. Cities of the Interior. Chicago: Swallow, 1974. ____. The Diary of Anais Nin, 1931-1934. Ed. Gunther Stuhlmann. New York: Swallow/Harcourt, 1966. ____. The Diary of Anais Nin, 1934-1939. Ed. Gunther Stuhlmann. New York: Swallow/Harcourt, 1967. ____. The Diary of Anais Nin, 1939-1944. Ed. Gunther Stuhlmann. New York: Harcourt, 1969. ____. The Diary of Anais Nin, 1944-1947. Ed. Gunther Stuhlmann. New York: Harcourt, 1971. ____. Fire: From a Journal of Love, The Unexpurgated Diary of Anais Nin, 1934-1937. New York: Harcourt, 1995. ____. "Hans and Johanna." Anais: An International Journal 7 (1989): 3-22. ____. The House of Incest. Paris: Siana Editions, 1936. ____. House of Incest. New York: Gemor, 1947. ____. House of Incest. Athens: Swallow/Ohio UP, 1995. ____. Incest: From a Journal of Love, The Unexpurgated Diary of Anais Nin, 1932-1934. 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